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What is the diabetes?

 Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body does not produce insulin or can not properly use the insulin it produces.

But what is insulin? It is a hormone that controls the amount of glucose in the blood. The body needs that hormone to use the glucose, which we obtain through food, as a source of energy.

When the person has diabetes, however, the body does not make insulin and can not use glucose properly. The level of glucose in the blood is high, the famous hyperglycemia. If this picture remains for long periods, there may be damage to organs, blood vessels and nerves.

 Risk factor's

  Am I at risk for diabetes? You may be one of the many Brazilians who have diabetes and do not know it. Know the risk factors for both types and move to stay healthy!

 Risk factors for type 1 diabetes

 It is already known that there is a genetic influence - having a close relative with the disease greatly increases the chances of you having it too. But there is still no conclusive research on the risk factors for type 1 diabetes.

  Risk factors for type 2 diabetes

 People who have risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes should perform regular medical consultations and exams frequently. You should be more attentive if:

 Has a diagnosis of pre-diabetes - decreased tolerance to impaired glucose or impaired fasting (See Have you heard of pre-diabetes?)

 You have high blood pressure

 Have high cholesterol or changes in the rate of triglycerides in the blood;

 You are overweight, especially if the fat is concentrated around the waist;

 Has a father or brother with diabetes;

 Have some other health condition that may be associated with diabetes, such as chronic kidney disease (see Complications);

 Had a baby weighing more than four kilos or had gestational diabetes (see in Gestational Diabetes);

 He has polycystic ovary syndrome;

 Some psychiatric disorders were diagnosed, such as schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder;

 He has sleep apnea;

 He received a prescription for medication of the glucocorticoid class.


Do not ignore the risk factors. The sooner you have the diagnosis, the faster you can act to stay healthy, now and in the future. In addition, it is a way to protect the people you like: if you have type 2 diabetes, your children and siblings may also have chances of developing the disease. It is important that everyone consult the doctor and do exams.

Diagnosis and treatment

Is it easy to hear that you have diabetes? No, however, if you have quality information and learn everything you need for your day to day with the disease, you can have a long, happy and healthy life. It is normal for the head to turn, with many questions, fear and anxiety. But whoever is well oriented manages to replace fear with caution.

 A simple blood test can reveal if you have diabetes. With a drop of blood and three minutes of waiting, it is already possible to know if there is any change in the blood glucose level. In case the modification is considerable, it will be necessary to carry out other deeper examinations.

 To ensure the result and start treatment, the doctor must request the oral glucose tolerance test, better known as the Glycemic Curve. The test is performed in several steps, in which blood samples are collected in a certain time, usually 30 to 30 minutes. In the intervals, the patient must ingest a glucose syrup. The results are arranged in a graph and allow accurate diagnosis.

 Sharing your doubts with trusted friends and family can reveal to people willing to support you and help you change your lifestyle. There are still several support groups and associations that not only help with the exchange of experiences, but also provide important information about the use of glucose monitors and insulin pumps. It is important to communicate the school, the health plan and the company where you work (in the case of children, see: My child has diabetes, and now?). If there is any complication, these institutions will be oriented to help and guide for the correct attention.

 Treatment and control: what to do?

 One of the most important things is to control the level of glucose in the blood, to avoid complications. The measurement can be done through a glucose monitor or by insulin pumps. The two types of apparatus must be acquired and used with the guidance of the multidisciplinary team.

applications. Thus, it will be possible to clearly understand the interaction between medications, physical activity, nutrition and how you are feeling.

 Normal fasting blood glucose should not exceed 100 mg / dL

Two hours after a meal, the blood glucose should not exceed 140 mg / dL

Always take your monitor and your blood glucose meter with you when you visit your doctor. They can test if your monitor is working perfectly and if you are checking it correctly. It is also valid to take notes on the medications you are using or, if you use insulin, the usual dose and times. To do this, keep the prescriptions of your doctor and require him to have your prescription in a readable way.

 Food planning is not diet!

 All people, whether or not they have diabetes, should have a healthy diet by regulating the amount of sweets and fat eaten, for example. This helps maintain healthy weight. And it's always good to remember: if you're overweight considered ideal for your profile, losing weight will help a lot in controlling the disease. And even if you do not reach the ideal weight, a loss of 10 to 15% already represents a much healthier life. Think about it!

For those who have diabetes, a very important tool is the counting of carbohydrates. You can note the values ​​or also put in applications for the mobile. Because diet will be a reflection of the amount of exercise performed, diabetes is nothing more than an opportunity to review your own and your family's habits.

 Exercise is not just workout!

 Regular exercise helps lower blood sugar levels. When you expend energy, your body uses blood sugar at a higher rate. In addition, research has shown that physical activity favors mood, sleep, and other activities, as well as avoid cardiovascular and even degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, you know.

 The monitoring of blood glucose level is also important in sports practice, which should be done under the guidance of the multidisciplinary team. If you are not exercising and you are about to start, see a doctor first. The results of this check-up may indicate the most appropriate activity - the goal is to do something that you enjoy. Activities with your partner or with a group of friends can also help.


You will get to know your glucose levels better when you practice your exercises at the same time of day.

 Good news is that such 'physical activity' does not have to be in the gym. Hiking and biking trails can be great options. Change the escalator and elevator by the common staircase. Stop the car farther and walk a few blocks. A half hour of moderate activity, three times a week, is already a good goal.

 For diabetic smokers, the best option is to stop smoking. This habit speeds up all the problems associated with diabetes because it lowers the blood flow and oxygenation of the cells.

 You are the protagonist of diabetes management. Get ready for inquiries - do your part by writing down data on paper, on tables on your computer, or on your tablet or smartphone. Set goals. Know that your diabetes care may change over time, so it is important to have a 'plan of action' always up to date.

 How will I know which is the best medicine?

 Medicines for diabetes control are always evolving, and the doctor is the person most able to tell which one fits your profile. They help the pancreas to produce more insulin, decrease the absorption of carbohydrates and increase the body's sensitivity to the action of insulin.

 Remembering that medications will not always be needed for long periods: in the case of Type 2 Diabetes, the change in lifestyle may suffice. Another thing that a person just received the diagnosis should know is that the remedies are modified over time, according to age and with the behavior of the rate of glycemia.

 Sometimes glycemic control is only obtained with insulin injections. Some people need to receive this substance at the same time they use drugs. How often you get insulin depends on how much your body still produces and how your doctor plans to control your blood glucose level.

 Other relevant information: Different types of insulin have different action times. Your health care team will tell you how much of each type you need and how often. It is important to learn the correct technique of using insulin injections and always modify the body location where they are applied, to avoid degenerative problems. The best places are the belly, except for the area of ​​5 cm around the navel; upper region of the buttocks; anterior and lateral face of thighs; and lateral and posterior region of the arm.

 The application can be done by syringes, pens for this purpose and also by means of the insulin pumps. Some of them do both functions: they measure the blood glucose rate and apply the dose indicated by the user. The multidisciplinary team can assist you with information on each method, the costs involved and the ways to acquire the equipment. 

Scientific advances in the field enable treatments for all types of diabetes cases. This is an opportunity for you to pay more attention to your health and acquire responsibility for the changes.

: Health .

InsulinAll people with Type 1 and many Type 2 diabetes need insulin to control their blood glucose. The most important thing is to live well with diabetes, right? Yes, but people often feel anxious when they know they will have to start taking insulin therapy. This is normal. Some people are afraid of injections, others find it hard to understand the application mechanism. (adsbygoog.. Read More

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