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Anti-inflammatory: what are, main types and how to use

Sore throat

Anti-inflammatory drugs are remedies that decrease the production of inflammatory substances in the body, such as prostaglandins or thromboxanes, and are usually indicated for the treatment of various types of pain, such as sore throat, menstrual cramps or headache, for example, in addition to being used to lower fever.

The type of anti-inflammatory that can be used depends on the condition to be treated, and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen or acetylsalicylic acid, for inflammation, fever or mild to moderate pain, or, corticosteroids such as dexamethasone or prednisone, in the case of inflammation related to the immune system, such as allergic rhinitis or lupus, such as vultis.

Therefore, it is important to consult the doctor for the diagnosis of the disease to be made and, thus, it is possible to be guided the best anti-inflammatory, the dose of the drug and the duration of treatment.

The main types of anti-inflammatory include:

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, also known as NSAIDs, are drugs that act by reducing the production of inflammatory substances in the body, such as prostaglandins and thromboxines, responsible for inflammation or pain.

Generally, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate pain that do not improve with the use of painkillers, such as headache, sore throat, muscle pain, rheumatoid arthritis, menstrual colic, or pain after surgery, for example. In addition, these remedies can be used to lower fever.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be used with medical indication, in the doses and by the time of treatment guided by the doctor.

Some examples of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are:

1. Acetylsalicylic acid

Acetylsalicylic acid, also known as ASA, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, indicated to treat inflammation, relieve pain of mild to moderate intensity, in cases of arthritis, headache, sore throat or menstrual cramp, and lower fever in adults and children.

In addition, at low doses, it can be used by adults as an anticoagulant, since it inhibits platelet aggregation, being indicated to reduce the risk of acute myocardial infarction, prevent stroke, angina and thromboses in people who have some risk factors.

How to use: acetylsalicylic acid should be taken orally after a meal to reduce irritation in the stomach. The recommended doses depend on the age and condition to be treated, and usually for the treatment of pain or fever in adults the dose is 1 to 2 tablets of 500 mg every 4 to 8 hours, or according to medical advice, and should not exceed 8 tablets per day. See other ways to take acetylsalicylic acid.

Possible side effects: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, heartburn or stomach pain may occur during treatment with acetylsalicylic acid. In addition, prolonged use may increase the risk of bleeding or stomach ulcers.

Contraindications: This remedy should not be used by pregnant women or by people who are allergic to acetylsalicylic acid, tendency to bleeding, asthma attacks caused by the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, stomach or bowel ulcers, severe kidney, liver or heart failure, or who are using anticoagulant remedies.

2. 2. Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory indicated for the relief of fever and pain, such as headache, muscle pain, tooth pain, migraine, rheumatoid arthritis and menstrual colic.

In addition, ibuprofen can also be used by adults and children to relieve body pain and fever in case of symptoms of cold or flu.

How to use: the form of use of ibuprofen depends on the presentation, as it can be found in drops, tablets, softgels or oral suspension. Learn how to use ibuprofen.

Possible side effects: the most common side effects are dizziness, appearance of skin lesions such as blisters or spots, stomach pain, nausea or swelling.

Contraindications: This remedy should not be used by people who have an allergy to ibuprofen or any other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, asthma, liver, kidney or heart failure, ulcer or bleeding in the stomach or intestine. Also, it should not be used by children under 6 months.

3. Diclofenac

Diclofenac has an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antithermal effect, being indicated to relieve pain and inflammation in cases of osteoarthritis, rheumatism, menstrual colic and pain after surgery, for example.

This remedy can be found in tablet form, drops, oral suspension, suppository, solution for injection or ointment, with the trade names Cataflam or Voltaren, or with the generic names diclofenaco potásic or diclofenac sodium.

How to use: the form of use of diclofenac depends on presentation, and for tablets coated from the diclofenac potassium (Voltaren), the dose normally recommended for adults range from 75 to 150 mg per day, according to medical advice. See other ways to use diclofenac.

Possible side effects: the most common side effects of diclofenac are headache, dizziness, vertigo, stomach mouth pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, excess intestinal gas, decreased appetite, blistering of skin

Contraindications: Diclofenac should not be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women, by people who have an ulcer ulcer in the stomach or intestine, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, severe liver, kidney or heart disease, high blood pressure, asthma or rhinitis. This remedy should not be used by people who are allergic to diclofenac or any other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory.

4. 4. Nimesulida

Nimesulide is indicated to relieve various types of pain, inflammation or fever, such as osteoarthritis, sore throat, headache and menstrual cramps, for example. See other indications of nimesulide.

In addition, nimesulide may be indicated to relieve pain in tendons, ligaments, muscles and joints due to traumas when used in the form of gel or ointment.

How to use: nimesulide in tablet, capsule, solution drops, dispersible tablet or granules should be taken orally after meal, and the dose normally recommended for adults is half a 100 mg tablet every 12 hours, as directed by medical advice.

Possible side effects: the most common side effects of nimesulide are diarrhea, nausea or vomiting. In addition, although rare, itching or swelling in the skin, excessive sweating, constipation, increased intestinal gas, gastritis, dizziness, vertigo or increased blood pressure may occur.

Contra-indicações: Nimesulide should not be used by children under 12 years of age, pregnant or breastfeeding women, or by persons who have ulcer or bleeding in the stomach or intestine, problems with blood clotting, severe heart, kidney or liver failure, asthma, rhinitis or nasal polyps. This remedy should also not be used by people who have a nimesulide allergy or any other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Corticosteroidals and

Corticosteroids, also known as corticosteroids or cortisone, are synthetic remedies produced in the laboratory based on hormones produced by the adrenal glands, which have a potent anti-inflammatory action.

Generally, corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation or decrease body immune system activity related to health problems such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, irritable bowel syndrome, or even for the treatment of severe allergic reactions or anaphylactic reactions.

Corticosteroids should be taken only with medical indication and regular consultations to accompany treatment and the appearance of side effects. In addition, the use of corticosteroids should not be interrupted on their own, and should be instructed by the doctor to reduce doses gradually when they are used in high doses or for a prolonged period.

Some examples of corticosteroids are:

1. Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone is indicated to treat various allergic and acute or chronic inflammatory problems, including rheumatic, skin, eye, glandular, pulmonary, blood and gastrointestinal disorders.

This remedy can be found in the form of tablets, elixir, solution for injection, dermatological cream or ophthalmic eye drops, and should be used with medical indication.

How to use: the form of use of dexamethasone and its dosage can vary greatly according to the problem to be treated, age and other factors of health history, and the doses normally recommended of tablets or elixir for adults are ranging from 0.75 to 15 mg per day, according to medical guidance. See other ways to use dexamethasone.

Possible side effects: the most common side effects of dexamethasone are fluid retention, congestive heart failure, increased blood pressure, weakness or muscle loss, osteoporosis, bone frailty, gastrointestinal problems, delayed wound healing, acne, red patches on the skin, bruising, excessive sweat and dermatitis, urticaria or angioedema.

Contraindications: dexamethasone should not be used by people with systemic fungal infections or with a sulphite allergy, or any other components present in the formula. In addition, it should not be given to people who have recently taken live virus vaccines. In the case of women who are pregnant or in the breastfeeding phase, this medicine should only be used with obstetrician guidance.

2. 2. Betamethasone

Betamethasone has a potent anti-inflammatory action, being indicated for the treatment of several health problems that affect the skin, mucous membranes, glands, bones, muscles or respiratory system, such as dermatitis, urticaria, rheumatoid arthritis, sciatica, bronchitis, asthma and lupus, for example.

This remedy can be found as betamethasone dipropionate, betamethasone valerate or doodium phosphate of betamethasone, in the form of ointment, cream, lotion, topical solution, tablet or injectable, and should be used only with medical indication.

How to use: Betamethasone doses vary according to presentation, and usually for tablets, doses normally recommended for adults range from 0.25 mg to 8.0 mg per day, as directed by medical advice. Learn how to use betamethasone or cream.

Possible side effects: the side effects of beta-methasone are related to the dose and time of treatment and include high blood pressure, itching, weakness, pain or loss of muscle mass, osteoporosis, vertebral fractures, inflammation of the pancreas, abdominal swelling, ulcerative esophapharyngitis, and tissue healing impairment.

Contraindications: Betamethasone should not be used by children, pregnant or breast-feeding women unless recommended by the doctor. In addition, this remedy should not be used by people who have active and/or systemic infection, allergy to the components of the formula or other corticosteroids.

3. Prednisone

Prednisone is a corticosteroid indicated to treat rheumatism, synovitis, dermatitis, severe psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, allergic rhinitis and allergic reactions to medicines, for example. Check out other indications of the prednisone.

This remedy has a potent anti-inflammatory, anti-remetic, anti-allergic and immunosuppressant effect, and should be used only with medical indication.

How to use: prednisone should be taken orally, and the dose normally recommended for adults can vary from 5 mg to 60 mg per day, depending on the condition to be treated.

Possible side effects: the most common side effects of prednisone are increased appetite, poor digestion, stomach ulcer, pancreatitis or ulcerative esophagitis, nervousness, tiredness or insomnia.

Contraindications: This remedy should not be used by people with systemic fungal infections or uncontrolled infections or by people who are allergic to prednisone or to any of the components of the formula. In addition, prednisone should not be used by pregnant or nursing women unless it is recommended by the doctor. Prednisone is also not recommended for people with advanced liver diseases, since it is metabolized by this organ.

4. 4. Prednisolone

Prednisolone is a corticosteroid indicated for the treatment of problems such as rheumatism, pivotal arthritis or rheumatoid, synoplasms, systemic lupus erythematosus and acute rheumatic carditis, bronchial asthma, pemphigoth, dermatitis, thrombocytogenic purpura, and can also be used in the treatment of cancer.

Prednisolone is a corticosteroid similar to prednisone, however, it does not undergo liver metabolism, and is usually recommended in cases where the person has liver disease.

How to use: prednisolone varies greatly depending on weight, age, disease to treat and presentation, as it can be found in the form of tablets, oral suspension or drops. Thus, the normally recommended doses of prednisolone in the form of adult tablets range from 5 to 60 mg per day, which is equivalent to 1 tablet of 5 mg or 3 tablets of 20 mg per day and should be taken with medical advice.

Possible side effects: prednisolone can cause side effects such as increased appetite, poor digestion, stomach ulcer, pancreatitis, ulcerative esophagitis, nervousness, tiredness or insomnia. In addition, prednisolone can cause reduced tolerance to carbohydrates or latent diabetes mellitus.

Contraindications: This remedy should not be used by people who have an allergy to prednisolone or any other type of corticosteroid, or by people who have fungal infections or other uncontrolled systemic infections. Prednisolone should also not be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women without medical advice.